What is the RAPID decision-making framework?
Operations & Talent
April 27, 2023

What is the RAPID decision-making framework?

Gaussian Team

Clear decision-making is essential for success, but most organizations, small and large, cite role clarity as a key challenge As organizations grow and become more complex, it becomes increasingly important to have a framework that helps clarify decision accountability and ensure efficient processes. The RAPID framework is one such tool designed to tackle this challenge. In this article, we will discuss the RAPID framework, when it is used, the roles it comprises, how to implement it, its benefits, and provide some examples of its application.

What is the RAPID framework?

The RAPID framework, developed by Bain & Company, is a decision-making and accountability tool that streamlines the process of making choices within an organization.

RAPID is an acronym for the roles involved in the decision-making process: Input, Recommend, Agree, Decide, and Perform. By clearly defining these roles and assigning them to specific individuals or groups, the RAPID framework helps ensure that decisions are made efficiently and effectively.

The RAPID framework how different roles operate together to make and execute on a decision
  • Input (I): An expert input provider who offers insights and knowledge needed to make the decision effectively.
  • Recommender (R): The individual who engages input providers, compiles a recommendation, and presents it to the decision-maker. The recommender does most of the work in the decision-making process.
  • Decision-Maker (D): The person responsible for approving or rejecting the recommendation, taking accountability and responsibility for the decision and its impacts.
  • Agreer (A): Ideally avoided, this role represents someone who must agree with the decision-maker's choice before it can be finalized.
  • Performer (P): An individual responsible for performing part or all of the execution of the activity, as decided by the decision-maker.

It's likely evident that not every stakeholder needs a decision-making or executing role, despite being impacted by the result of this decision. Also, not every role has to exist on every decision, particularly the Agreer (A) role, which could open the door to consensus-driven decision-making if abused.

Furthermore, individuals may hold multiple roles in the same decision. For instance, a COO may be a Recommender (R) and Input (I) on a critical long-term vendor partnership for which the CEO is the Decision-Maker (D).

It should be noted that there cannot be multiple Decision-Makers (D) or Recommenders (R), by design. These roles are necessarily singular.

When is RAPID used?

The RAPID framework is best suited for situations where decisions must be made quickly, and there is a clear chain of command. It can be especially useful in addressing role clarity "hotspots" that arise from highly interrelated, collaborative, and mission-critical situations. RAPID is also effective in cases where stakeholder buy-in is necessary, ensuring that everyone affected by the decision is involved in the process.

In practice, RAPID is most frequently deployed when there are sore issues of low performance or employee dissatisfaction for which role clarity has been identified as the driver. These scenarios are highly reactive. Thoughtful leaders (or ones who have been burned in the past by role clarity challenges) will proactively seek out problem areas in mid-level to senior-level parts of the organization where conflicting or unclear roles might be the root cause, and pressure test that role clarity is optimal.

How is RAPID implemented?

Implementing the RAPID framework requires practice, discipline, and support from the organization's leaders. It should be integrated into the company culture so that is can be used proactively and positively, versus reactively and punitively.

  • Start by identifying the key decisions and activities that are (a) have highest risk of failure (b) crucial for day-to-day operations (c) have highest degree of complexity (d) have overlapping accountability
  • Group these into decision categories (if there are more than 5-10 decisions), unless you can guarantee enough time commitment to run a highly-involved RAPID workstream (these are often facilitated by RAPID consultants)
  • Assign RAPID roles to the appropriate individuals or groups
  • Hold working sessions attended by all the involved individuals to collaboratively agree on the roles, decision by decision, and document this in a table
  • Circulate the RAPID document to ensure that everyone involved is aware of their responsibilities and understands the importance of their role in the decision-making process

Note that activities are nested – the “performance” of one activity may be several sub-activities that have their own decision-making.

Benefits of RAPID

The RAPID framework offers several benefits:

  • Streamlines decision-making processes, resulting in faster and more efficient choices
  • Clarifies roles and responsibilities, reducing uncertainty and disagreements
  • Encourages involvement from all stakeholders, promoting buy-in and commitment to the decision
  • Prevents groupthink by encouraging different perspectives and opinions

Examples of RAPID

The RAPID framework can be applied in various scenarios:

  • Crisis management: RAPID helps organizations make quick decisions to mitigate the impact of crises and emergencies.
  • New project or initiative planning: RAPID ensures stakeholder involvement in the decision-making process, promoting a timely and well-informed decision.
  • Resolving role clarity "hotspots": In complex organizational structures, RAPID can help define responsibilities and streamline decision-making in situations where peers have interrelated, collaborative, and mission-critical activities.
Example RAPID table

Role clarity example: Youth Service Co

A youth service nonprofit (anonymized as "Youth Service Co") with three sites planned to add a new location every two years. In the past, site decisions had generated a fair amount of tension among team members. Here are some of the activities and decisions that were creating issues:

  • Gather input from all stakeholders: Finance Director, Program team, external site partners, etc.
  • Sort each team's recommendations, and prioritize them by the level of impact, budget, timeline, and team effort
  • Present them to an executive director for final decisions
  • Begin implementing by assigning team responsibilities

The Youth Service Co team used RAPID, a structured approach, to identify key decision-makers and gather their input in a streamlined and efficient manner. It enabled them to decide quickly and move forward with their new site construction project. 


The RAPID decision-making framework is an invaluable tool that facilitates clear and effective decision-making in organizations of all sizes. By precisely defining roles and responsibilities, it promotes greater accountability, facilitates efficient processes, and enables swift action in crucial situations. While its application requires practice, discipline, and leadership support, the payoff in terms of increased role clarity and streamlined operations is significant. Whether used reactively to address performance issues or proactively to preempt potential challenges, RAPID fosters better organizational efficiency, performance, and satisfaction. To learn more about facilitation of RAPID workshops and role clarity, especially for leadership, contact the Gaussian Consulting partnership or read more about our services for improving role clarity.

Photo by Javier Allegue Barros.


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